1. EARR today
Comparing the magnitude of external apical root resorption (EARR) of maxillary incisors in patients with mild to moderate anterior crowding, treated with lingual and conventional (labial) orthodontics was the purpose of this research. The sample comprised 40 patients (11-45 years) divided into two equal groups: lingual and conventional buccal brackets. Apical root resorption was measured from periapical radiographs obtained at the beginning of treatment (T1) and at the end of the levelling phase (T2). Periapical radiographs were scanned and transferred to a software program in which measurements of root lengths were performed. There was significant apical root resorption for all teeth evaluated; the magnitude of the EARR (T2-T1) ranged from -0.35 mm to -0.63 mm in the lingual group, and from -0.66 mm to -0.85 mm in the conventional group. Although there was an intergroup variation in the magnitude of EARR observed, no statistically significant differences were found. Neither group presented any teeth with resorption >=1 mm and both techniques resulted in an apical rounding considered clinically insignificant.

Nassif CE et al. Comparative study of root resorption of maxillary incisors in patients treated with lingual and buccal orthodontics. Angle Orthodontist 2017 Jul 24.

Q External apical root resorption (EARR) of maxillary incisors is:
A An unacceptable outcome of orthodontic movement
B Generally greater than 2mm
C Similar whether lingual or buccal brackets are used
D Greater for lingually placed brackets

  1. Tracing appliance ions
This unusual project set out to discover whether dietary habits affect the release of Cr and Ni ions from orthodontic appliances by using analysis of minerals in hair. The 47 patients answered an electronic dietary questionnaire and had samples taken of their hair at the beginning and in the 4th, 8th, and 12th months of treatment. Results showed that consumption of acidic dietary products may have the effect of increasing the release of Cr and Ni ions from orthodontic appliances as the levels were higher in those who consumed fruit juice, coffee, yoghurt, and vinegar. The coefficients enabling comparison of metal ions release pattern at a given sampling points were defined. The following magnification pattern was found for chromium: coffee (7.57 times) > yoghurt (2.53) > juice (1.86) > vinegar (1.08), and for nickel: vinegar (2.2) > coffee (1.22) > juice (1.05). Yoghurt did not intensify the release of nickel. The authors conclude that orthodontic patients should avoid drinking/eating coffee, yoghurt, fruit juices, and vinegar.

Wolowiec P et al. Do dietary habits influence trace elements release from fixed orthodontic appliances? Biological Trace Element Res 2017 Apr 11.

Q The release of ions from orthodontic appliances:
A Was measured in this study using saliva analysis
B Had the greatest magnification for chromium when vinegar was in the diet
C Showed no effect for nickel ions and yogurt
D Was greatest for coffee drinkers for both nickel and chromium

  1. Ortho endo perio links
Interdisciplinary working is often quoted as important for the benefit of holistic patient care and this research looked at the interface between orthodontics, endodontics and periodontics by assessing 80 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. They were divided into two groups: group I included patients with the absence of endodontically treated teeth, while group II included those in whom maxillary central incisors were restored endodontically. Periodontal health was recorded using the community periodontal index of treatment need (CPITN) around the selected teeth pre-orthodontics, at 6 months into treatment and at post-treatment. In the groups I and II, 28 and 25 patients respectively, had a score of 1, while 10 patients in group I and 12 patients in group II had a score of 2. However these results were non-significant when compared statistically at any of the measured time intervals. In patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, having endodontically restored teeth, no difference exists in relation to their periodontal health, indicating that orthodontic treatment can be safely carried out in such patients.

Jalaluddin M et al. Assessment of the effect of orthodontic treatment on the periodontal health of endodontically restored teeth. J Contemporary Dent Practice 2017 18: 587-590.

Q As a result of this research would you?
A Advise patients with root treated central incisors to not have orthodontics
B Not be concerned in particular for patients with root treated central incisors undergoing orthodontics
C Be particularly concerned for the periodontal health of endodontically treated teeth during orthodontic treatment
D Provide additional splinting for root treated central incisors to safeguard their periodontal health

  1. Social bonding
Social media has been used to improve the knowledge of orthodontic patients during treatment. Sixty-seven patients were randomised into two groups all of whom were given the standard verbal and written information for patients about to receive orthodontic treatment. In addition, patients in the intervention group received e-mails asking them to view a specifically designed YouTube video which was unlisted but accessible through a web link in the e-mail. All patients were administered with a baseline questionnaire at bond-up which was repeated at six weeks. In all, the participants watched the video 90 times. Participants in the intervention group scored, on average, almost one point higher on the second questionnaire than did those in the control group. Ethnicity had a statistically significant effect on improvement in knowledge, but gender did not. Presenting audiovisual information through the YouTube web site to orthodontic patients resulted in a significant improvement in patient knowledge. Supplementation of verbal and written patient information with audiovisual information via the internet is therefore worthy of consideration.

O'Brien S, Duane B. Delivery of information to orthodontic patients using social media.
Evidence-Based Dent 2017 18: 59-60.

Q In relation to orthodontic treatment:
A Use of social media may be an adjunctive way to improve patients’ knowledge
B Viewing video content is unlikely to have any effect on patients’ knowledge
C Viewing YouTube content is counterproductive and should be discouraged
D Young people are unlikely to be interested in videos on tooth movement