TEST PREVIEW

  1. Hypertension may be primary, secondary or tertiary. Secondary hypertension has an identifiable cause.
  1. In most populations worldwide, when environmental and familial risk factors are controlled, hypertension increases with age.
  1. A patient who presents with a baseline blood pressure of 147/79 would be considered to _______________.
  1. Atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD) is a chronic process that occurs when the blood vessels carrying oxygen and nutrients from the heart to the rest of the body develop a buildup of ________________.
  1. Approximately _______% of adults in the United States have some form of heart disease.
  1. Arterial thrombi can lead to _______________.
  1. The prevalence of periodontitis has been estimated to be over ______% of U.S. adults.
  1. The prevalence distribution of periodontal disease severity and disease progression in treated and untreated populations suggests that periodontal disease is bacterially initiated and disease progression is propagated by host factors.
  1. Reduction of ___________, a marker of systemic inflammation, in patients with low serum cholesterol levels has demonstrated a significant reduction in myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke.
  1. Periodontal pathogens have been identified in atheromas.
  1. The influence of periodontitis on cardiovascular disease likely involves which of the following mechanisms:
    1. The increase in local and systemic pro-inflammatory mediators
    2. Sepsis involving high levels of bacteria and bacterial components in the bloodstream and the subsequent overwhelming immune response
    3. The induction of systemic bacteraemias, which can then lead to an increase in a systemic inflammatory response.
  1. CVD and periodontal disease share confounding risk factors, including __________.
  1. There is current evidence that periodontal therapy improves the following CVD risk factors EXCEPT:
  1. Current data suggest that the risk in performing dental procedures in patients with CVD is _________.
  1. In patients with CVD, screening for periodontal disease and the use of advanced therapies and/or more stringent maintenance protocols to control the increased inflammatory load in patients with both CVD and periodontitis should be considered.
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