How common are ethical dilemmas in dentistry? That is a very difficult question to answer as the perception and awareness of ethical issues varies with the individuals involved. No studies or evidence exists documenting the volume of problems. However, Regulatory Boards often cite ethics as causative in cases considered by these agencies. Each situation involving human beings will be unique since each problem or dilemma will have distinguishing aspects. The following listing provides the general categories that have been acknowledged as ethical dilemmas in the dental ethics literature.8,10,11
Categories of Ethical Dilemmas
The scope and depth of ethical problems in the delivery of dental care will vary greatly. Discerning or being aware that an ethical issue is present is always the first step followed by defining the aspects of the problem. Every clinical situation has ethical aspects.
You are a new clinician in an established dental clinic in a large urban area that sees patients from many different immigrant groups. To accommodate these patients and facilitate treatment, the practice employs several interpreters and dental assistants from these various communities.
One day, the interpreter for a new family comes to you concerned about the three children whom she is interviewing for your next screening appointments that afternoon. The family was referred from a local church which has been helping a number of immigrant families in the community. The children seem healthy, well-adjusted and pleasant but have obvious serious dental problems. The oldest child, nine year old Angie has anterior decay across all her maxillary teeth and the youngest, three year old Sophie has only black stubs for teeth.
The mother is pleasant and very caring for her children. She invites you to their church for a special festival -- a feast and a dance to celebrate the end of the harvest. She talks about what she would like to cook for you and the nice people in the office. The interpreter tells you that you should implement your safeguarding policy because of this high level of neglect. After your examination of the three children, you too are very concerned about the level of dental disease you have observed as they fit the definition of dental neglect in relation to safeguarding.
Applying the Ethical Decision-making Model
Step 1. What is the ethical question?
Should the clinician implement the practice safeguarding policy regarding the dental neglect found in the children? Is this dental neglect or dental ignorance? What is the responsibility of the clinician in this case to the children and the parent?
Step 2. Collect information
Determine the history of the family and the length of time they have been in the UK --- they are from a small country in Eastern Europe and have been in the UK six months.
The dental practice appears to have a relationship with the local church, what guidance do they provide for these folks and do they cover the cost of care --- a clerk at the church helps set up appointments and the church pays for basic care. The children are healthy, happy and well-adjusted --- Mom is involved, cooks and cares for them and is present in the dental office.
The interpreter and the clinician have observed that dental disease is present and meets the definition of neglect – what would the likely course of action be from child protective services for these children based on history and information.
Step 3. State the options
Step 4. Apply the principles
Step 5. Make the decision
#4 is the first option chosen in this situation because the children are in the dental office and all indications are that the Mom will proceed with treatment. Informing Social services would most likely not get dental care any faster for these children. Option #5 would be also be part of the treatment plan.
Step 6. Implement the decision
Provide dental treatment to the children.
In this hypothetical case, additional options might be available. Often discussing a case like this among colleagues would result in additional thoughts, suggestions and options. The model is diagramed in a circle as information can change requiring the clinician to reframe the initial question and begin again based on new facts.