1. A 2019 study examining brain tissue from elderly individuals found that gingipains from P. gingivalis were present at ____________ levels in brains from individuals with Alzheimer’s Disease than those who did not have Alzheimer’s Disease.
  1. The elderly population in the United States is expected to increase ___________ by the year 2050.
  1. Approximately how many people are diagnosed with dementia every year worldwide?
  1. What was the economic impact of dementia in the United States in 2015?
  1. Dementia is the ________ leading cause of years lived with a disability.
  1. All of the following have been associated with the development of dementia, EXCEPT:
  1. Approximately _______ of U.S. adults over 30 years old suffer from periodontal disease.
  1. Chronic inflammation influences the progression of dementia. It has been hypothesised that inflammation primes the microglia and increases the production of neuronal proteins associated with dementia.
  1. Pathways by which oral bacteria are thought to enter the brain include ______________.
  1. Both caries and periodontal disease increase in prevalence with age and are common in older individuals. Factors that influence this increase in disease prevalence include ______________.
  1. Care resistant behavior is defined as ______________.
  1. What percentage of certified nursing assistants report care resistant behaviours in response to oral hygiene delivery?
  1. Which of the following are mechanisms caregivers can implement to reduce care resistant behaviour?
  1. All of the following are true about Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF), EXCEPT:
  1. SDF causes caries arrest by increasing fluoride availability and remineralisation. SDF also inhibits of collagenases and cysteine cathepsins.
  1. Which of the following are non-verbal signs of oral discomfort that may be recognised in a non-verbal patient with dementia?
    i. Chewing of lip or tongue
    ii. Pulling at face or lips
    iii. Refusing denture wear
    iv. Aggression in response to oral-related activities of daily living
  1. Involvement of the interdisciplinary healthcare team in the evaluation and delivery of oral health can result in______________ in patients with dementia?
  1. In patients with dementia, improved oral health may lead to improvements in overall health as well. Which of the following is not seen with improved oral health in patients with dementia?
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