1. Approximately how many individuals live with depression worldwide?
  1. Anxiety and depression are often comorbid. What percentage of individuals diagnosed with depression also meet the criteria for an anxiety disorder?
  1. Individuals with anxiety and depression have higher rates of many systemic diseases. Which of the following has NOT been shown to be higher in individuals with psychosocial disorders?
  1. Periodontitis and anxiety/depressive disorders have been linked. What is thought to be the underlying etiology of this association?
  1. Stress signals are transmitted through the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to the CNS via all of the following neurotransmitters EXCEPT:
  1. Stress, in particular chronic stress, may increase depressive symptoms through which of the following mechanisms?
  1. Studies have shown that depression is associated with higher rates of caries in patients 35-54.
  1. In patients undergoing active periodontal maintenance therapy, baseline levels of depression were predictive of increased BOP and probing depths between 1 and 5 years after initial therapy. Occupational stress was not associated with increased clinical attachment loss over 5 years.
  1. In both animal and human models, antidepressant use was associated with decreased clinical attachment loss, bone loss, and BOP.
  1. Assessment of mental health disorders in the dental surgery allows for a fuller understanding of overall risk factors. Which of the following is a tool that can be used to assess depressive symptoms in the dental surgery?
  1. Interdisciplinary care for individuals with depression and anxiety disorders is critical. If a patient is diagnosed with depression and/or anxiety, which of the following should be undertaken by his/her medical healthcare provider to improve oral health outcomes?
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