ADA Council on Scientific Affairs, FDA. Dental radiographic examinations: Recommendations for patient selection and limiting radiation exposure. Rev. 2012. Accessed January 27, 2020.
Joseph LP. The Selection of Patients for X-ray Examinations: Dental Radiographic Examinations. Rockville, Md.: U.S. Department of Health and Humans Services, Center for Devices and Radiological Health. 1987. HHS Publication No. FDA 88-8273.
ADA Council on Scientific Affairs, FDA. The selection of patients for x-ray examinations. Rev. 2004 Accessed January 27, 2020.
White SC, Pharoah MJ. Oral radiology : principles and interpretation, 7th ed. St. Louis, Mo. Mosby/Elsevier. 2014.
White SC, Mallya SM. Update on the biological effects of ionizing radiation, relative dose factors and radiation hygiene. Aust Dent J. 2012;57 Suppl 1:2–8. doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.2011.01665.x.
Carter L, Farman AG, et al. American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology executive opinion statement on performing and interpreting diagnostic cone beam computed tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;106(4):561–562. doi:10.1016/j.tripleo.2008.07.007.
Tyndall DA, Price JB, Tetradis S, et al. Position statement of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology on selection criteria for the use of radiology in dental implantology with emphasis on cone beam computed tomography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;113(6):817–826. doi:10.1016/j.oooo.2012.03.005.
American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology. Clinical recommendations regarding use of cone beam computed tomography in orthodontics. [corrected]. Position statement by the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology [published correction appears in Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013 Nov;116(5):661]. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013;116(2):238–257. doi:10.1016/j.oooo.2013.06.002.
Special Committee to Revise the Joint AAE/AAOMR Position Statement on use of CBCT in Endodontics. AAE and AAOMR Joint Position Statement: Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Endodontics 2015 Update. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2015;120(4):508–512. doi:10.1016/j.oooo.2015.07.033.
American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. The use of cone-beam computed tomography in dentistry: an advisory statement from the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. J Am Dent Assoc. 2012;143(8):899–902. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2012.0295.
ADA Council on Ethics, Bylaws and Judicial Affairs. Principles of ethics and code of professional conduct with official advisory opinions revised to November 2018. Accessed January 27, 2020.
Ozar DT, Sokol DJ. Dental ethics at chairside : professional principles and practical applications, 2nd ed. Washington, DC. Georgetown University Press. 2002.
American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology. About Dental X-rays. Accessed January 27, 2020.
Ludlow JB, Davies-Ludlow LE, White SC. Patient risk related to common dental radiographic examinations: the impact of 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations regarding dose calculation. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008;139(9):1237–1243. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2008.0339.
The Image Gently Alliance. What Parents Should Know about the Safety of Dental Radiology. Accessed January 27, 2020.
American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Ad Hoc Committee on Pedodontic Radiology. Guideline on prescribing dental radiographs for infants, children, adolescents, and persons with special health care needs. Pediatr Dent. 2012;34(5):189–191.
CDC. Children's Oral Health. 2019 May 14. Accessed January 27, 2020.
CDC. Disparities in Oral Health. 2016 May 17. Accessed January 27, 2020.
Ritter AV, Shugars DA, Bader JD. Root caries risk indicators: a systematic review of risk models. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2010;38(5):383–397. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0528.2010.00551.x.
Hugoson A, Sjödin B, Norderyd O. Trends over 30 years, 1973-2003, in the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol. 2008;35(5):405–414. doi:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2008.01225.x.
Rushton VE, Horner K, Worthington HV. Routine panoramic radiography of new adult patients in general dental practice: relevance of diagnostic yield to treatment and identification of radiographic selection criteria. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002;93(4):488–495. doi:10.1067/moe.2002.121994.
Masood F, Robinson W, Beavers KS, et al. Findings from panoramic radiographs of the edentulous population and review of the literature. Quintessence Int. 2007;38(6):e298–e305.
Bohay RN, Stephens RG, Kogon SL. A study of the impact of screening or selective radiography on the treatment and postdelivery outcome for edentulous patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1998;86(3):353–359. doi:10.1016/s1079-2104(98)90185-8.
ADA. Caries Risk Assessment and Management. 2018 Dec 14. Accessed January 27, 2020.
ADA. Caries Risk Assessment Form (Age 0-6). 2011. Accessed January 27, 2020.
ADA. Caries Risk Assessment Form (Age >6). 2011. Accessed January 27, 2020.
Bushong SC. Radiologic science for technologists: Physics, biology, and protection, 10th ed. St. Louis, MO. Elsevier-Mosby. 2013.
Scarfe WC. Radiation risk in low-dose maxillofacial radiography. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012;114(3):277–280. doi:10.1016/j.oooo.2012.07.001.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Radiation protection in dentistry. NCRP Report 145, Bethesda, MD. 2015 Jun 01. Accessed January 27, 2020.
Gibbs SJ. Effective dose equivalent and effective dose: comparison for common projections in oral and maxillofacial radiology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000;90(4):538–545. doi:10.1067/moe.2000.109189.
Parks ET, Williamson GF. Digital radiography: an overview. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2002;3(4):23–39. Published 2002 Nov 15.
White SC, Heslop EW, Hollender LG, et al. Parameters of radiologic care: An official report of the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001;91(5):498–511. doi:10.1067/moe.2001.114380.
Nakfoor CA, Brooks SL. Compliance of Michigan dentists with radiographic safety recommendations. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1992;73(4):510–513. doi:10.1016/0030-4220(92)90335-n.
Bohay RN, Kogon SL, Stephens RG. A survey of radiographic techniques and equipment used by a sample of general dental practitioners. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1994;78(6):806–810. doi:10.1016/0030-4220(94)90100-7.
No Additional Resources Available