Which of the following statements related to microbial contamination of hands is correct?
A. Microbes recovered from hands can be divided into two categories: transient and resident organisms.
B. Transient microorganisms tend to colonize the superficial layers of skin and while they are amenable to removal by washing hands with plain (i.e., non-antimicrobial) soap and water, they are responsible for most HAIs.
C. Resident organisms are attached to deeper layers of the skin and while they are more resistant to removal, they are less likely to be associated with HAIs.
D. All of the above.
All of the following statements related to the transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens from one patient to another via the hands of HCP are correct EXCEPT which one?
A. Organisms present on the patient’s skin or mucous membranes, or on contaminated instruments, equipment, and environmental surfaces and contaminate the hands of HCP.
B. Organisms on the hands of HCP must be capable of surviving for at least several hours.
C. HCP perform inadequate hand hygiene, omit hand hygiene entirely, or use an inappropriate hand hygiene product.
D. Contaminated hands come in direct contact with another patient, or with an inanimate object that will come into direct contact with the patient.
All of the following statements related to wearing of gloves in healthcare settings are correct EXCEPT which one?
A. To prevent or reduce the risk of occupational exposure, the standard of care mandates that HCP wear gloves.
B. Wearing gloves does not eliminate the need for appropriate hand hygiene practices.
C. Bacterial flora colonizing patients have not been recovered from the hands of HCP who wore gloves during patient contact.
D. Pathogens can be transmitted via small defects in gloves or by contamination of the hands during glove removal.
All of the following statements are correct with respect to detergents and antiseptic agents EXCEPT which one?
A. Detergents contain esterified fatty acids and sodium or potassium hydroxide and are often referred to as “soaps.”
B. Detergent formulations used in healthcare settings should have a broad antibacterial spectrum, be fast acting, and should have persistent or residual activity.
C. The cleaning activity of plain soap results in the removal of dirt, soil, and various organic substances from the hands.
D. Only ethanol, 60 to 95% formulations; and povidone iodine, 5 to 10% formulations, meet the test and product labeling requirements as antiseptic agents.
All of the following statements related to handwashing are correct EXCEPT which one?
A. Handwashing is washing hands with water and plain soap that does not contain an antimicrobial agent or contains low concentrations effective solely as preservatives.
B. Handwashing is not recommended for routine hand hygiene in clinical situations when the hands are visibly soiled with blood, and/or other potentially infectious material.
C. Following handwashing, the hands must be dried thoroughly with a single-use towel; it is of note that organisms are transferred in larger numbers from wet versus dried hands.
D. Antimicrobial-impregnated wipes (i.e., towelettes) may be considered as an acceptable alternative to handwashing.
All of the following statements about antiseptic handwash are correct EXCEPT which one?
A. Povidone iodine, 5 to 10% formulations, is considered safe and effective for use in antiseptic handwash.
B. Antiseptic handwash removes or destroys transient microorganisms and reduces the resident hand flora.
C. Antiseptic handwash is an acceptable alternative to handwashing when the hands are visibly soiled; otherwise, an alcohol-based handrub is recommended.
D. The use of antimicrobial-impregnated wipes (i.e., towelettes) is an acceptable alternative to antiseptic handwash.
All of the following statements about antiseptic hand rub are correct EXCEPT which one?
A. Antiseptic hand rub is defined as applying a waterless antiseptic agent (i.e., ethanol, 60-95%, expressed as percent by volume) to the hands.
B. Antiseptic hand rub removes or destroys transient microorganisms and reduces the resident flora.
C. Antiseptic hand rub is more effective than handwashing or an antiseptic handwash and it is the preferred method for routine hand hygiene when the hands are visibly soiled.
D. The concurrent use of an alcohol-based hand rub and an iodophor-based antimicrobial soap is contraindicated.
All of the following statements regarding surgical hand antisepsis are correct EXCEPT which one?
A. Performing surgical hand antisepsis by scrubbing the hands/forearms with a brush for 10 minutes can damage skin and result in increased shedding of microorganisms.
B. Scrubbing the hands/forearms with a brush nor a sponge for 2 to 3 minutes reduces microbial counts to acceptable levels.
C. Surgical hand antisepsis is defined as performing either a two-stage surgical hand antisepsis or surgical antiseptic handwash with povidone iodine.
D. In a two-stage surgical hand antisepsis, antiseptic handrub with an alcohol-based formulation containing 0.5% to 1% chlorhexidine gluconate is preferred.
All of the following are important considerations when purchasing hand hygiene products EXCEPT which one?
A. The primary factor influencing product selection should be cost.
B. The general reliability of the dispenser system.
C. The functional reliability to deliver an appropriate volume of the product.
D. For alcohol-based formulations, confirm that the container is flame-resistant.
All of the following statements are correct with respect to selecting and/or handling plain (non-antimicrobial) or antimicrobial soaps, or an alcohol-based hand rub EXCEPT which one?
A. Solicit information from manufacturers regarding any known interactions between hand hygiene products, skin care products, and the type of gloves used in the facility.
B. Hand care products should be stored in disposable or reusable closed containers.
C. To minimize the risk of product contamination, always “top off” partially empty soap dispensers at the end of each day.
D. To maximize acceptance of hand hygiene products solicit input from HCP regarding fragrance (smell), consistency (“feel”), skin tolerance, and color.
All of the following statements related to irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) are correct EXCEPT which one?
A. ICD is the most common reaction associated with the frequent and repeated use of hand-hygiene products.
B. ICD is an immunologically mediated dermatitis.
C. ICD is characterized by dryness, itchiness, or burning; the skin may feel “rough;” and appear erythematous, scaly, or fissured.
D. Signs and symptoms of ICD are similar to those associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), which can be ruled out by allergy testing.
All of the following statements related to ICD are correct EXCEPT which one?
A. Factors that contribute to ICD include using hot water, scrubbing, the quality of paper towels used, wearing and removing gloves, and low relative humidity (winter months).
B. ICD is most commonly reported with iodophors.
C. Alcohol-based hand rubs are the safest antiseptics available and ethanol is usually less irritating than isopropanol.
D. To minimize the likelihood of ICD, washing hands with soap and water after each use of alcohol-based hand rub is highly recommended.
All of the following statements related to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are correct EXCEPT which one?
A. ACD is a T cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity reaction (Gell and Coombs Type IV).
B. ACD is caused primarily by fragrances and preservatives; and less commonly by emulsifiers found in hand-hygiene products.
C. ACD with alcohol-based products is quite common, but ACD with iodophors is rare.
D. ACD usually begins as a rash, redness, and itching that may progress to oozing skin blisters and may spread to areas of skin untouched by the product.
The Institute for Healthcare Improvement in its How-to Guide: Improving Hand Hygiene recommends a multidimensional approach, e.g., introduction of alcohol-based hand rub, and educational, and behavioural initiatives, to improve compliance with hand hygiene guidelines.
Which of the following statements is correct with respect to the Summary of Infection Prevention Practices in Dental Settings: Basic Expectations for Safe Care published by the CDC in 2016?
A. The Summary includes an Appendix, Infection Prevention Checklist for Dental Settings.
B. Section I.5, Hand Hygiene, provides a tool to monitor institutional compliance with administrative measures.
C. Section II.1, Hand Hygiene is Practiced Correctly, is an evaluation tool to monitor compliance by direct observation of oral HCP.
D. All of the above.